Kherson – the largest city and the center of steppe – lies on the right bank of the Dnieper wellhead . During the Russo- Turkish War of 1735-1739 pp. Russian military fortifications Alexander founded a sconce . 1778 by order of Catherine II at the mouth of the Dnieper begun construction of a fortress city and the Admiralty shipyard , named after the ancient Chersonese.
So far, the fragments of artificial ramparts and embedded in them Ochakovskaya gate (XVIII c. ) Powder keg (1791 ) and a large house Arsenal ( 1784). With the towering ramparts Catherine Cathedral ( one of the oldest temples of the city , 1787 ) and bell tower (1806). Cathedral appeared on the eve of the Russo- Turkish War (1787-1791) and arranged around a necropolis dead in her commanders. Among the other buildings of the city are determined by the time of the launch of the Greek Sophia Church ( 1780) and the residence of Admiral D. Senyavin.
It Kherson became the cradle and the first base of the Russian Black Sea Fleet. With the construction of the fortress stood shipyards, ship repair shops , warehouses and more. 1779 laid the first big 66 -gun ship launched in 1783 , followed by frigate “Kherson” , “Caution “, ” hasty “, “Easy “, ” region ” and others.
Enthusiastically Russian Empire new lands of the Northern Black Sea and the establishment of new ports – Nikolaev (1789) and Odessa (1794 ) – revealed that the Kherson relatively shallow and can not accept large ships . In 1790 -ies Admiralty gradually transferred to Nikolaev , and by the end of the century the city’s population reduced tenfold.
Kherson saved from collapse in 1803 giving it the status of the center of a large province. For a while there is still built warships , and since 1806 , the city launched the merchant shipyard that produced an average of 25 commercial ships a year. From the XIX century. inherited Kherson got a number of places of worship – Holy Spirit Cathedral ( 1836), St. Nicholas Church ( 1819) , houses the library ( 1896) , banks and private residences .